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tv   Global 3000  PBS  October 28, 2014 7:30pm-8:01pm PDT

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>> hello and welcome to "global 3000." over the next half hour we'll bring you up to date on some of those key issues that matter wherever you live. and here is what is coming up. is coexistence impossible? how indigenous groups in peru try to live in harmony with nature. witch hunts in papua new guinea. a barbaric practice that simply won't go away. and moving to the city -- we visit chinese farmers happy to have left traditional life behind. we humans have left our mark on the world we live in. under 20% of the planet is still largely untouched.
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one of these rare areas is in the east of peru. there the manú national park is home to an estimated half a million plant and animal species. but it will take some effort to keep it that way. this raises the question, of course, whether humans always have to be a spanner-in-the works when it comes to nature... our reporter explores a project looking to see whether we can reconcile our needs with those of nature. >> peru is one of the five megadiverse countries, those are the most biodiverse countries on earth. and peru is like that because it has got a very arid coast with a very rich offshore current, the humboldt current, then you've got the andes mountains with lots of deep valleys up to snow-capped mountains, and then you go down into the amazon
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rain forest. and that creates a whole lot of microclimates and ecosystems with a huge diversity of animals and plants in them. >> the manú national park is located in southeastern peru, in the amazon basin. most of the park is rain forest. rob williams of the zoological society of frankfurt, germany, heads a project that seeks to help preserve this ecosystem. a dozen species of reptiles live here. caimans can grow to six meters in length. countless species of mammals also live in manú, among them capybaras -- one of the world's largest rodents. the extensive, dense forest has not been fully explored. it no doubt still holds many secrets. people also live within the
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national park -- indigenous groups such as the machiguenga. rob williams and his team visit them regularly. today they are talking to the children about how important it is to take care of the world they live in, the amazon ecosystem. outside forces are about to encroach ever more on their world. >> the challenge for these communities - and we're really helping them find their way in this -- is to see what they can do so that they can maintain their traditional way of living for those who want to remain to live that way. and those who want to earn money, live in the monetary economy outside the park, can also have a foot in that world. and that's the challenge for each individual and for the community as a whole. the people here have electricity for a couple of hours a day -- it comes from solar panels or generators.
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it is an opportunity to watch television. many families have cleared small plots in the forest to grow crops, such as cassava. but most of the machiguenga live just like many generations of their ancestors before - as hunters, fishermen and gatherers. the older generation grew up without any contact to the outside world. in manú, humans and nature appear to be in balance. about a thousand machiguenga live in the national park. their number doubles every nineteen years. what effect does this growing population have on the natural resources here? >> these people need protein. they get that by hunting and by fishing. this way is very sustainable. and yes, they don't have refrigeration here.
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they fish what they need to eat that day. there is no point in catching tons of fish. there is no market for selling it. they share what they catch. if he catches one of the large catfishes now, that will feed his family today and there will probably some leftovers for the people around them. so they don't need any more than that. fish is not always available. forest animals offer another important source of protein for the machiguenga. only the men go hunting -- with bow and arrow, like their fathers and grandfathers before them. it might be easier with guns, but the park administration persuaded the hunters to do without firearms so they would not kill too many animals too quickly. the machiguenga know their hunting grounds very well. today these men are after a
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woolly monkey. the trees are tall here, and the branches are dense, so they don't have a clear aim. after four hours of being chased, the monkey is exhausted. it is perched on a lower branch over a swamp. the machiguenga and the park administration have made a deal -- they help preserve the ecosystem in return for certain benefits. the hunters keep a list of the animals they bag. >> basically, the idea is that communities can really have an idea about how much they are hunting and what the state of the population is in the area they are hunting. and then hopefully they can take some decisions towards managing that resource to ensure that it is there forever. >> the machiguenga contribute to the maintenance of their ecosystem and its bio-diversity.
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humans can be part of a functioning ecosystem. but they can, of course, disrupt it, too, and very fast. so rob williams and his team are always on the lookout for changes. they are installing hundreds of motion or infrared sensored cameras to get data on animals which are normally almost impossible to track. the project is partially funded by the german environment ministry's international climate initiative. brocket deer come by, as do peccaries. this jaguar has caught a caiman. animals that come out at night like this tapir also have their portraits taken. but there are still great secrets in the rain forest -- groups of people who want to have nothing to do with the outside world.
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we know as little about them as they know about us. it is also crucial for their sake that the ecosystem in manú national park be preserved. >> now witch hunts sound like something from the dark ages of the past, but every year, thousands of people are still accused of practicing black magic, and killed for it. all over the world. in haiti, an angry mob recently murdered several women accused of deliberately spreading cholera. in congo, tens of thousands of children have suffered ritualized abuse because they're said to have "kindoki" or magic powers. tanzania's albino children also risk persecution, and saudi arabia has an official anti-witchcraft unit that can impose the death penalty. those accused of witchcraft also suffer in india and papua, new guinea. there the belief in magical powers is still widespread. and those wrongly accused are helpless when their own communities turn on them.
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>> dini koral survived a brutal attack. she will never forget that horrible day. she tells us her son was sick and in the hospital, and was hiv-positive. the day he died, dini koral was alone at home. five young men showed up, accused her of being a witch and of killing her own son with black magic. then they attacked her with machetes and bush knives. she tells us they stabbed her all over her body. under her arms, in her stomach and her kidneys. she had to spend a whole year in the hospital. then dini koral went back to her village. she did not know where else to go. her younger son tries to protect her. the attackers live just a few houses away, undisturbed. and the village keeps silent.
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>> i am scared to death every time somebody in the village dies. those men might come back at any moment and kill me. i will never feel safe again. but i have no place to go. throughout the highlands of papua new guinea, people believe in the power of black magic and evil spirits. a sudden death, an accident, a mysterious ailment -- any inexplicable event can trigger a new witchhunt. monica paulus wants that to end. she was herself accused of being a witch. now she travels from village to village to try to help survivors. >> when we look at most of the cases that we do, the vulnerable ones are always the women. and when we look at the women, it is those women who are widows who have lost their husband or those who break up in a family
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marriage and return back to live in their village. >> in almost every village we are told about witch hunts. these men have blood on their hands. they tortured a woman for hours because they suspected she had poisoned a boy in her village with sweet potatoes. the boy is now fine. the woman is dead. there is no hint of regret or shame. >> to make them talk, we have to do something. hang them with band rope or wire. so we have to force them to talk. so once we know that an infected person is a practicing sorcerer, we have to get rid of them in the community, or just kill them. that is all. >> in the provincial capital kundiawa, most people don't want to talk about black magic and evil spirits.
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if you talk about sorcery, people might think you are a sorcerer. it is not clear how many women are murdered each year on suspicion of being witches. probably hundreds. the authorities do not pursue the cases with much vigor. michael welch is the chief of police in chimbu province. he says the problem is not witchcraft but the accused women themselves and they are soley to blame for their plight. >> i have a strong belief in such beliefs. we can't prove sorcery in the courts, so if someone is accused of being a sorcerer, what can the police do? we don't have evidence to accuse that person. it is the community themselves. >> one might say witchhunts are just a brutal ancient ritual that has somehow survived to the present day. but monika paulus says there is
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more to it than that. within two centuries, papua, new guinea, has been catapulted from the stone age into the modern world. the country is rich in natural resources, but ordinary people hardly benefit at all from the booming economy. young men feel frustrated. they turn to alcohol, drugs and violence against women. >> it is becoming worse, like when you look back like in society, people don't value women anymore. so they see a female as just another object in the community. that is why you see a lot of torture. >> monica refuses to be intimidated and wants to put an end to these senseless killings. she travels to her home village, together with her sister clara who was abused and attacked two years ago. she almost died. clara fled to the city, and she only dared return to the village
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in the company of her sister monica. she remembers the attack vividly. >> the village elders stood back at some distance, but they knew what was going on. they gave orders to the younger men. and everybody watched. nobody was there to help me. >> the men of the village welcome the women with respect. it is a tense encounter. the assailants were not strangers, but brothers, cousins and -- neighbors. >> these are the very people that i rely on and i think they will be supporting me if i go through problems and things like this and if they are atttacking my sister, they will also attack me in the long run. i didn't want to come, but then
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if i don't do it, they will continue to do it to other women in the village. monica paulus stands up to the men. it takes a great deal of courage to do so, and to challenge traditional beliefs and practices. her message is clear. the violence and the killing must stop. >> a very brave woman indeed - and hopefully an example for many others to stand up to these superstittious beliefs. and now to this week for old global questionnaire. >> my name is abrahim yusuf. i am 38 years old. i am born in the village from tis abay. here i am a local guide from the blue nile waterfall.
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>> so i am a local guide from here. i get in a month like 900 birr. we have a local guide association. we are 14 local guides. so in a week two days, i work here, the rest i will be in my home. >> what does globalization mean to you? >> now we are in the same thing. we are going to in the one world. because at the previous time the people live in different things. they don't have a good education they don't have a health centre. nowaday we have a good thing. we have a hospital, roads, hotels, different things, so this is a good thing for us. >> what makes you happy? >> i get good money from here, at the tourists'.
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when i am working as a guide and i live myself and my mamma and my dad and also my family. so it is a good thing for me, because before we don't have anything from home. so we are now satisfied. >> what's your favorite food? >> injera with lamb tibs. that means enjera with meat. i like it. >> how do you spend your leisure time? >> i study about computer. i am a student in a private college. so i study computer science. >> what do you expect for your future? >> so my future--i want to open my internet café in barda. because barda is a main city for the tourists. so there is not a lot of
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internet cafés here. so i want to open that. >> which country would you like to visit? >> in africa i like to visit south africa. because south africa is a developing country in africa. so in the previous time there was the apartheid. so the white people and the black people, they live together as a friend as a family so i want to see this. >> starting a new life in the big city. that's a dream for many chinese living in the countryside. far from china's thriving economic growth and huge urban centers, their lives may look idyllic, but they are actually often full of hardship. in many ways, the longs are typical of the new china. they have made the transition from a small village to a medium-sized city. and it seems they aren't looking back.
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>> everything is new here -- the apartment, the furniture, their whole way of life. long guoyuan, his wife and their two granddaughters moved from the country to the city five months ago. material comforts are new to them. running water, a bathroom. their small two-room apartment already feels like home. >> it all looks great. it is much darker in the village. that is why we were looking forward so much to our new apartments. the old house is empty. nobody would want to live there, even if we'd give it away. >> we visited the family last november, when they were still living in their home village of chashan. long guoyuan and his wife were farmers. back then, water had to be brought up from the stream. the climate here in the mountains is not good for farming. it is damp and foggy the year round. guayuan's wife worked in the
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fields. they ate mostly cabbage and rice. the houses in the village are made of wood. open fires are the only source of heat. winters are cold and long. >> we don't have any money and hardly any income. we are always scared a fire might break out. and the wood is rotting. i have lived in this house for ten years, and back there it is all rotten already. the climate is bad, and the roads are, too. my two sons could not even find a wife around here. it is just too hard. >> guayuan's sons moved far away, to find work as migrant workers and a wife. luckily, they found both. ten-year-old anhui, a grandchild
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lives with her grandparents. she only sees her parents once a year. life in the village was hard for the long family. children from the mountain villages go to a boarding school down in the valley. but in poor areas, the teaching is also poor. children in remote country areas receive an inferior education than their contemporaries in the cities. the children there go home for the weekend. it is a three-hour walk to the long family's village. and it is a strenuous climb up into the mountains -- especially for the younger children. but it is all different now in the city of liping. the longs' grandchildren have to walk just a few hundred meters to their new school. for many families from the countryside, access to better education is an important reason to move to the city. the school in liping may not be
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the best, but it is better than in their village. morning assembly is modelled on rituals observed in schools in beijing. her teacher says anhui had to do some catching up when she started, but she is now doing much better. long guoyuan appears to have found his feet fast in the city. he invested his savings and his children's money in an electric tricycle truck. now he is waiting for work. >> the first thing i did here was buy this vehicle. it will be useful once i have my own business, and now i can transport things for other people. i earn dozens of yuan a day. here, we can buy what we want. in the village, we could not buy anything. even if we had money. life here is so much better.
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>> long guoyuan earns the equivalent of 250 euros a month. his sons living far away also send their parents some money. so, for now, they can certainly get by. if millions of new city-dwellers spend money, that means growing domestic demand. and that is exactly what the government wants to see. back in the village, it is hot and muggy. only the old and the sick and some unmarried younger men are still here. two thirds of the villagers have already left. if you are still here, it means you haven't made it. the mood in the village is bad. >> i can't do anything about it. it is hard to get away. and the food is so dull. but i have to support my parents. they are too old to move to the city. that is how it is. i'll stay here for now, and i'll
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move later. >> long anping has just enough money for a new subsidized flat in the city, but no more. so he has to stay here a while longer. the government is aware of such problems. >> the relocation has been going well. almost all the households in the village have bought an apartment in the city and are planning to move. but some have not moved yet because they don't have the money for a bathroom or kitchen or furniture. >> for long guoyuan and his family, things have worked out well so far. their standard of living is now much higher. but under china's household registration system, the family is still classed as "rural" and not "urban". that means they won't have access to health insurance or the pension system until their entry in the register can be updated. if the two sons one day decide
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to come home, there won't be room in the new apartment. problems are looming. >> there is no immediate solution. for now, we live like this, and the grandchildren still have many years to go till they leave school. >> the government has promised them a second apartment. when there is enough money to actually buy it, then the family will be really happy. >> and that wraps up "global 3000" this week. as always there is plenty more online. thanks for watching. hope you'll join us again next time. bye-bye for now. çñ??wowowowowowc
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